These somewhat varied relationships reflect the fact that the nine major branches did not derive directly from a common ancestor. Gregersen proposed that Niger—Congo and Nilo-Saharan be united into a larger phylum, which he termed Kongo—Saharan.
Nasality Nasalized vowels are common. We will discuss the matter further below. Here he infers that speakers of the Chadic group of Afro-Asiatic languages, who today occupy much of the northern zones in-between the Songhay and Saharan languages, were not present in this area at this earlier time.
The information in this paper, while not entirely definite, is at least a start in the attempt to understand the African languages. Most noun class systems have an accompanying concord system; i.
These we omit from direct consideration but see this link for a Glotto Map showing the distribution of Narrow Bantu: Likewise, Mande is often assumed to be the second-most distant branch based on its lack of the noun-class system prototypical of the Niger—Congo family.
Derek Nurse 41 suggests an ancient dispersal for Nilo-Saharan from the vicinity of Lake Chad, but a center of gravity between the greater Nile basin and the central Sahara desert has also been suggested. This view was later expanded by G. The typical word structure of Proto-Niger-Congo is thought to have been CVCV, a structure still attested in, for example, Bantu, Mande and Ijoid — in many other branches this structure has been reduced through phonological change.
General Overviews and Textbooks While now somewhat dated given how much the descriptive picture of the family has improved in recent decades, the most comprehensive survey of Niger-Congo is the edited collection Bendor-Samuelwhich contains twenty-two chapters on the major branches of Niger-Congo as understood at that time.
All of these are considered to be distinct languages and not simply dialects. A characteristic common to most Niger—Congo languages is the use of a noun class system.
My perspective here, largely that of an amateur, will seek general views that seem reasonable in light of available evidence, recognizing that perspectives may significantly change as research uncovers new things in archaeology, for example, some new important site could make a big difference.
Dogon is a coherent cluster of languages that Blench estimates have been differentiating for some years within a concentrated area around the Bandiagara escarpment in the central plateau of Mali south of the Niger Bend.
They were written mostly by European missionaries who often lacked the linguistic training necessary to analyze languages that had little in common with their own.
Tone Most Niger-Congo languages have tonal systems, most commonly with two or three contrasting levels of pitch though four levels are also found and very occasionally even five.
Bleek is also credited with distinguishing the Bantu languages from what are now called the Kordofanian languages Fula, Wolof, Ga, Ukuafi and Tumale. Westermann included Mande in his language family "West Sudanic" and also suggested that the Bantu languages were a part of this grouping.
They list the following as separate families: Meinhof used these Bantoid languages as a stepping stone for the application of the comparative method through which he constructed a proto-Bantu language Bendor-Samuel 6.
Joseph Greenberg took Westermann's work as a starting-point for his own classification. Find answers for the crossword clue: Niger-congo language.
We have 1 answer for this clue. The first book in a Niger-Congo language was a catechism in Kongo, a Bantu language, published in Kongo was also the choice for the first grammar of the phylum, written in SHARED FEATURE S Phonology.
Vowel Harmony. The northern group of the Atlantic branch and the non-Bantu languages of Benue-Congo exhibit ATR vowel harmony. Feb 15, · The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families, and Africa 's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
It is generally considered to constitute the world's largest language family in terms of distinct languages, although this is complicated by the ambiguity about what constitutes a distinct language. Niger-Congo Languages By YourDictionary Atlantic-Congo Languages Fufulde (Maasina) Translator Eggon Language Learners Guide to Pular (PDF Book) Pulaar Phrases and Vocabulary Twi Language Books and Other Resources Yoruba Language Books and Other Resources.
Niger-Congo languages, a family of languages of Africa, which in terms of the number of languages spoken, their geographic extent, and the number of speakers is by far the largest language. Nov 29, · Niger-Congo languages dominate sub-Saharan Africa, and the family constitutes one of the world’s largest referential language groups, with around fifteen hundred languages.
The precise composition of Niger-Congo is not settled.Niger congo language